1Patricia L. Clay,1Katherine H. Joy,1Brian O’Driscoll,1Henner Busemann,1Lorraine Ruzié-Hamilton,1Ray Burgess,1Jonathan Fellowes,2Bastian Joachim-Mrosko,1John Pernet-Fisher,3,4Stanislav Strekopytov, 5Christopher J. Ballentine
American Mineralogist 105, 289 – 306 Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2020-7237]
1Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.
2Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52f, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3Imaging and Analysis Centre, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, U.K.
4National Measurement Laboratory, LGC Ltd, Queens Road, Teddington, TW11 0LY, U.K.
5Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3AN, U.K.
Copyright: The Mineralogical Society of America
Volatile elements (e.g., H, C, N) have a strong influence on the physical and chemical evolution of planets and are essential for the development of habitable conditions. Measurement of the volatile and incompatible heavy halogens, Cl, Br, and I, can provide insight into volatile distribution and transport processes, due to their hydrophilic nature. However, information on the bulk halogen composition of martian meteorites is limited, particularly for Br and I, largely due to the difficulty in measuring ppb-level Br and I abundances in small samples. In this study, we address this challenge by using the neutron irradiation noble gas mass spectrometry (NI-NGMS) method to measure the heavy halogen composition of five olivine-phyric shergottite meteorites, including the enriched (Larkman Nunatak LAR 06319 and LAR 12011) and depleted (LAR 12095, LAR 12240, and Tissint) compositional end-members. Distinct differences in the absolute abundances and halogen ratios exist between enriched (74 to136 ppm Cl, 1303 to 3061 ppb Br, and 4 to 1423 ppb I) and depleted (10 to 26 ppm Cl, 46 to 136 ppb Br, and 3 to 329 ppb I) samples. All halogen measurements are within the ranges previously reported for martian shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) meteorites. Enriched shergottites show variable and generally high Br and I absolute abundances. Halogen ratios (Br/Cl and I/Cl) are in proportions that exceed those of both carbonaceous chondrites and the martian surface. This may be linked to a volatile-rich martian mantle source, be related to shock processes or could represent a small degree of heavy halogen contamination (a feature of some Antarctic meteorites, for example). The differences observed in halogen abundances and ratios between enriched and depleted compositions, however, are consistent with previous suggestions of a heterogeneous distribution of volatiles in the martian mantle. Depleted shergottites have lower halogen abundances and Br and Cl in similar proportions to bulk silicate Earth and carbonaceous chondrites. Tissint in particular, as an uncontaminated fall, allows an estimate of the depleted shergottite mantle source composition to be made: 1.2 ppm Cl, 7.0 ppb Br, and 0.2 ppb I. The resultant bulk silicate Mars (BSM) estimate (22 ppm Cl, 74 ppb Br, and 6 ppb I), including the martian crust and depleted shergottite mantle, is similar to estimates of the bulk silicate earth (BSE) halogen composition.