The Bidirectional and Directional Hemispheric Reflectance of Apollo 11 and 16 Soils: Laboratory and Diviner Measurements

1Emily J.Foote,1David A.Paige,2Michael K.Shepard,3Jeffrey R.Johnson,4Stuart Biggar
Icarus (in Press) Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2019.113456]
1University of California Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567
2Bloomsburg University, 400 E. Second St., Bloomsburg, PA 17815, Bloomsburg, PA
3Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11101 Johns Hopkins Road, 200-W230, Laurel, MD 20723-6005
4College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., P.O. Box 210094, Tucson, AZ 85721-0094
Copyright Elsevier

We have acquired a comprehensive laboratory bidirectional measurements of Apollo 11 and Apollo 16 lunar soil samples and have successfully fit photometric models to the laboratory data and have determined the solar spectrum averaged hemispheric reflectance as a function of incidence angle. The Apollo 11 (sample 10084) and 16 (sample 68810) soil samples are two representative end member samples from the Moon, dark lunar maria and bright lunar highlands. We used our solar spectrum averaged albedos in a thermal model and compared our model-calculated normal bolometric infrared emission curves with those measured by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment. We found excellent agreement at the Apollo 11 site, but at the Apollo 16 site, we found that the albedos we measured in the laboratory were 33% brighter than those required to fit the Diviner infrared data. We attribute this difference at Apollo 16 to increased compaction and decreased maturity of the laboratory sample relative to the natural lunar surface, and to local variability in surface albedos at the Apollo 16 field area that are below the spatial resolution of Diviner.

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