Critically testing olivine-hosted putative martian biosignatures in the Yamato 000593 meteorite—Geobiological implications

1McLoughlin, N.,1Grosch, E.G.,2,3Vullum, P.E., Guagliardo,4P.,4,5Saunders, M.,4Wacey, D.
Geobiology (in Press) Link to Article [DOI: 10.1111/gbi.12361]
1Department of Geology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
2SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway
3Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
4Centre for Microscopy Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
5School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia

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Radiometric calibration of thermal emission data from the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC)

1Bramble, M.S.,1,2Yang, Y.,3Patterson, W.R., III,1Milliken, R.E.,1Mustard, J.F.,4,5Donaldson Hanna, K.L.
Review of Scientific Instruments 90, 093101 Link to Article [DOI: 10.1063/1.5096363]
1Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States
2Planetary Science Institute, School of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China
3School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States
4Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU, United Kingdom
5Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, United States

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Displacement of the Proterozoic century ore deposit at the edge of an Ordovician meteorite impact crater, Queensland

1Lees, T.C.,2Murphy, F.C.,3Tomkins, A.G.,4 O’Donohue, D.
Economic Geology 114, 427-439 Link to Article [DOI: 10.5382/econgeo.4639]
1Fathom Geological Consulting Pty Ltd., 999 Nepean Highway, Melbourne, VIC 3189, Australia
2Fractore Pty Ltd., 2/2 Brinsley Road, Melbourne, VIC 3124, Australia
3School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
4New Century Resources Ltd., Level 4, 360 Collins Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia

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Astrochemistry and Astrobiology: Materials Science in Wonderland?

1d’Ischia, M.,2Manini, P.,3,4Moracci, M.,5Saladino, R.,6,7Ball, V.,8Thissen, H.,8Evans, R.A.,9Puzzarini, C.,10Barone, V.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 Link to Article [DOI: 10.3390/ijms20174079]
1Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ,Via Cupa Nuova Cinthia 21, Naples, 80126, Italy
2Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ,Via Cupa Nuova Cinthia 21, Naples, 80126, Italy
3Department of Biology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ,Via Cupa Nuova Cinthia 21, Naples, 80126, Italy
4Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, National Research Council of Italy, Via P. Castellino 111, Naples, 80131, Italy
5Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, 01100, Italy
6Institut National de la Santé et de la RechercheMédicale, 11 rue Humann, France
7Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg, 1 Place de l’Hôpital, Strasbourg, 67000, France
8Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Manufacturing, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
9Department of Chemistry “Giacomo Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, Bologna, I-40126, Italy
10Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, Pisa, I-56126, Italy

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Isotopic compositions, nitrogen functional chemistry, and low‐loss electron spectroscopy of complex organic aggregates at the nanometer scale in the carbonaceous chondrite Renazzo

1Christian VOLLMER,2Jan LEITNER,3,4Demie KEPAPTSOGLOU,3,5Quentin M. RAMASSE,6Henner BUSEMANN,1Peter HOPPE
Meteoritics and Planetary Science (in Press) Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.1111/maps.13389]
1Institut für Mineralogie, Westfalische Wilhelms-Universität, Corrensstr. 24, 48149 Münster, Germany
2Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany
3SuperSTEM Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, UK
4Department of Physics, Jeol Nanocentre, University of York, Heslington YO 10 50D, UK
5School of Chemical and Process Engineering, Scbool of Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
6Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie, ETH Zürich, Clausiusstr. 25, Zürich, Switzerland
Copyright Elsevier

Organic matter (OM) was widespread in the early solar nebula and might have played an important role for the delivery of prebiotic molecules to the early Earth. We investigated the textures, isotopic compositions, and functional chemistries of organic grains in the Renazzo carbonaceous chondrite by combined high spatial resolution techniques (electron microscopy–secondary ion mass spectrometry). Morphologies are complex on a submicrometer scale, and some organics exhibit a distinct texture with alternating layers of OM and minerals. These layered organics are also characterized by heterogeneous 15N isotopic abundances. Functional chemistry investigations of five focused ion beam‐extracted lamellae by electron energy loss spectroscopy reveal a chemical complexity on a nanometer scale. Grains show absorption at the C‐K edge at 285, 286.6, 287, and 288.6 eV due to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, different carbon‐oxygen, and aliphatic bonding environments with varying intensity. The nitrogen K‐edge functional chemistry of three grains is shown to be highly complex, and we see indications of amine (C‐NHx) or amide (CO‐NR2) chemistry as well as possible N‐heterocycles and nitro groups. We also performed low‐loss vibrational spectroscopy with high energy resolution and identified possible D‐ and G‐bands known from Raman spectroscopy and/or absorption from C=C and C‐O stretch modes known from infrared spectroscopy at around 0.17 and 0.2 eV energy loss. The observation of multiglobular layered organic aggregates, heterogeneous 15N‐anomalous compositions, and indication of NHx‐(amine) functional chemistry lends support to recent ideas that 15N‐enriched ammonia (NH3) was a powerful agent to synthesize more complex organics in aqueous asteroidal environments.

Dy, Er, and Yb isotope compositions of meteorites and their components: Constraints on presolar carriers of the rare earth elements

1Quinn R.Shollenberger,1Gregory A.Brennecka
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 529, 115866 Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115866]
1Institut für Planetologie, University of Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, Münster, 48149, Germany
Copyright Elsevier

One way to study the original building blocks of the Solar System is to investigate primitive meteorites and their components. Specifically, isolating these meteorites’ individual components via sequential acid leaching can reveal isotopically diverse material present in the early Solar System, which can provide new insights into the mixing and transport processes that eventually led to planet formation. Such isotopic differences in the components are likely to be found in heavy rare earth elements, such as dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), and ytterbium (Yb), because their isotopes have different nucleosynthetic production pathways and the elements have significant differences in volatility; however, these specific elements have yet to be thoroughly investigated in the field of cosmochemistry. As such, we present the first combined Dy, Er, and Yb isotope compositions of sequential acid leachates from the Murchison meteorite, along with multiple bulk meteorites from different taxonomic classes. This work also presents a new method to separate, purify, and accurately measure Dy isotopes. Here we show that resolved Dy, Er, and Yb isotope variations in most bulk meteorites are due to neutron capture processes. However, Dy and Er isotopic compositions of bulk Murchison and Murchison leachates stem from the additions or depletions of a nucleosynthetic component formed by the s-process, most likely mainstream silicon carbide (SiC) grains. In contrast, the Yb isotope compositions of bulk Murchison and Murchison leachates display either unresolved or relatively small isotope anomalies. The disparate isotopic behavior between Dy-Er and Yb likely reflects their differing volatilities, with Dy and Er condensing/incorporating into the mainstream SiC grains, whereas the less refractory Yb remains in the gas phase during SiC formation. This work suggests that Yb is hosted in a non-SiC presolar carrier phase and, furthermore, that mainstream SiC grains may be the primary source of isotopic variation in bulk meteorites.

Meteorites: International law and regulations

1Max Gounelle, 2Matthieu Gounelle
Meteoritics & Planetary Science (in Press) Link to Article [doi: 10.1111/maps.13396]
1Faculte de droit, Jean-Claude Escarras Centre for Comparative Law and Politics, UMR 7318 DICE, Universite de Toulon,
35 avenue Alphonse Daudet, 83056 Toulon Cedex, France
2Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Sorbonne Universites, CNRS, IMPMC – UMR CNRS 7590, 57 rue Cuvier,
75005 Paris, France
Published by Arrangement with John Wiley & Sons

Although meteorites are now considered as scientific objects, they still bear a
strong and powerful symbolic meaning due to their extraterrestrial provenance. The present article focuses on their legal status, in other words the collection of rules, very diverse in nature, which are applicable to them. Despite a growing international market, the Question of meteorites is often ignored or regarded as a detail in international relations and is rarely taken explicitly into account in negotiations and treaties. This relative neglect explains why
a non-State player, the Meteoritical Society, has taken methodological initiatives into meteoritic science and has effectively become a regulator of meteorite naming and acceptance, with a global scope. We show that to understand the legal status of meteorites, it is necessary to consider them under the prism of public international law, transnational law, and national law. We conclude that, despite the universality of meteorites as extraterrestrial objects, the variability of legal rules applicable to meteorites depending onto which territory they fall or where they are found. We note, however, that there is a trend toward regulatory uniformity in the scientific analysis of meteorites, which frames the practices of researchers and regulates traders’ activities. Finally, we contend that a Meteorite remains a badly defined legal object, because it can be viewed under many angles: as an object susceptible to private appropriation, as a “common thing” (res communis), or as an element of national heritage.