^{1}Pei Ma,^{1,2}Hao Zhang,^{3}Yazhou Yang,^{1}Te Jiang,^{4}Daniel Britt,^{5}Menghua Zhu

Icarus (in Press) Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2023.115608]

^{1}School of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China

^{2}CAS Center for Excellence in Comparative Planetology, Hefei, China

^{3}National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

^{4}University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

^{5}State Key Laboratory of Lunar and Planetary Science, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau

*Copyright Elsevier*

As a new planetary remote sensing tool, the phase ratio imagery calculates the ratio of images taken at different phase angles and may suppress surface albedo variations and enhance surface texture features. This technique has been used in the study of surface structure of airless bodies such as the Moon and Mercury. To understand the effectiveness of the method, we carried out laboratory phase ratio measurements on eight planetary analog materials including four pure minerals olivine, orthopyroxene, labradorite, ilmenite and four mixtures, the lunar regolith simulant JSC-1A, the lunar highland simulant, the Martian soil simulant, and the CI asteroid simulant, all in two size distributions, 0–45 μm and 90–105 μm. For each sample, the phase ratio A(α1)/A(α2) is obtained by measuring the reflectance at two phase angles α1 and α2 with α1<α2 at two radiation wavelengths, 633 nm and 905 nm. The results show that: (1) The particle size distributions can be differentiated by measuring the phase ratio A(α1)/A(α2), and in order to increase the discriminative power of the particle size distribution, the value of (α1-α2) should be as large as possible. (2) For pure minerals, larger grains have smaller phase ratio values, because larger grains of pure minerals are more forward scattering, leading to larger A(α2) and thus smaller phase ratio. For mixtures with simulated agglutinates that hold minerals together as composite particles, larger grains have higher phase ratios because they are less forward scattering due to multiple internal reflections and hence more absorptions. Since real planetary regoliths are likely dominated by composite particles with agglutinates, it is expected that larger grains would have larger phase ratio values.

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