Understanding the mineralogy and geochemistry of Chang’E-5 soil and implications for its geological significances

1Xiaohui Fu,1Chengxiang Yin,2Bradley L.Jolliff,1Jiang Zhang,1Jian Chen,1Zongcheng Ling,1Feng Zhang,3Yang Liu,3Yongliao Zou
Icarus (in Press) Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2022.115254]
1Shandong Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, School of Space Science and Physics, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong, China
2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and The McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA
3State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Copyright Elsevier

Chang’E-5 (CE-5) mission returned 1731 g of lunar soil from northeastern Oceanus Procellarum. This study begins by comparing the mineralogy and geochemistry of CE-5 soil with Apollo and Luna soils. CE-5 soil shares similar mineral components with Apollo mare soils. Geochemically, CE-5 soil is characterized by high-FeO, intermediate-TiO2, and elevated incompatible elements. The new returned CE-5 soil represents a unique type of mare soil that expands the diversity of returned lunar samples. Its bulk chemical compositions suggest that CE-5 soil consists of pulverized local mare basalt. Nonmare materials are thought to be negligible while meteoroid contamination is <1%. CE-5 soil provides an additional iron-rich basaltic end-member composition and extends the chemical ranges of the existing calibration soils for lunar remote sensing. CE-5 soil, together with the landing site, can serve as new ground truth both in mineralogy and geochemistry. Based on bulk chemical data of CE-5 soils and pyroxene compositions of CE-5 mare basalt clasts, we infer that CE-5 mare basalt has a fractional crystallization history similar to the Apollo high-Ti basalts. These CE-5 mare basalt clasts analyzed in recent studies, possibly derive from a single lava flow that experienced strong fractional crystallization.

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