Chronological and compositional mapping of the Mare Orientale basin using Chandrayaan-1 – M3 and LRO datasets

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1Centre for Applied Geology, The Gandhigram Rural Institute – Deemed to be University, Gandhigram, Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India
Copyright Elsevier

The lunar multiring mare basins have different ages, compositions and are associated with the diverse unit of mare deposits, providing evidence for the origin and evolution of the lunar crust. The multiring basins offer the opportunity to assess many unknown questions that may reveal the lunar geologic standpoint. The Mare Orientale basin is one of the youngest impact multiring basins on the Moon, which covers about 930 km in diameter and coordinates centered at 200S 950W. In the present study, the compositional, topographical, and chronological studies have been done by using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) from Chandrayaan-1 orbiter and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera-Wide Angle Camera (LROC-WAC) image from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The M3 data used to map the Optical maturity (OMAT), FeO & TiO2 concentrations of the basin. The Standard Band Ratio (SBR) of the Orientale basin has been prepared to discriminate the different mare and highland lithologies. The 1 μm and 2 μm band depths have been mapped to demarcate the mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxenes. The age of the Orientale basin mare units was mapped as Orientale event (3.72 Ga – Upper Imbrian), Orientale South West (3.7 Ga), Orientale West unit (3.37 Ga), Lacus Veris North unit- 1, 2, and 3 (3.1 Ga, 2.63 Ga, and 3.3 Ga), Lacus Veris East (2.9 Ga), Lacus Autumni – North (3.1 Ga), Middle (2.01 Ga), South (2.27 Ga) and Kopff crater (mare) (2.92 Ga) by using LROC-WAC data through Crater Size Frequency Distribution (CSFD) technique. Characterization of M3 reflectance spectra profiles was done to map the Orientale basin lithologies like olivine, pyroxene (low calcic and high calcic), plagioclase, ilmenite, Mg-spinel, and olivine – pyroxene mixtures that are present in the anorthositic, basaltic, noritic, and gabbroic rocks. It is revealed that the Orientale basin could have been formed either by global thermal evolution and basin mare volcanic evolution or pressure release melting and associated with secondary convection.


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