Successes and challenges of factor analysis/target transformation application to visible-to-near-infrared hyperspectral data

Icarus (in Press) Link to Article []
1NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, United States of America
2Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, United States of America
3National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
4Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, United States of America
5Space Resources Program, Colorado School of Mines, United States of America
6Institute at Brown for Environment and Society, Brown University, United States of America
7Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, United States of America
8Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, United States of America
Copyright Elsevier

We designed a laboratory visible-to-near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral experiment to test the effectiveness of factor analysis/target transformation for detecting minerals mixed with Mars Global Simulant-1 (MGS-1). The purpose of this experiment is to test for true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative results from application of factor analysis/target transformation methods and determine the parameters that dictate good versus bad algorithm performance. Gypsum, calcite, montmorillonite, nontronite, and kaolinite were each mixed with MGS-1 at abundances of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50%. The mixtures were placed in 2.5 × 2.5 × 1 cm sample trays and imaged using a Headwall Imaging Spectrometer with a spectral range of 0.9–2.6 μm, 8.98 nm spectral sampling, and 0.34 mm/pixel spatial resolution. These images include thousands to tens of thousands of hyperspectral pixels covering each individual mixture tray. Full-image factor analysis/target transformation (FA/TT) and Dynamic Aperture Factor Analysis/Target Transformation (DAFA/TT) were applied to these data to detect the minerals mixed with MGS-1. The results demonstrate that factor analysis/target transformation is prone to both false positive and false negative detections, but in certain applications—including DAFA/TT—it can be useful for highlighting spectrally interesting areas in hyperspectral images for follow-up investigation. The results presented here demonstrate that applications of factor analysis/target transformation to VNIR hyperspectral datasets should be used to highlight small outcrops and/or weak spectral signals in pixels for follow-up investigation. This emphasizes the need for supporting evidence to be obtained—in addition to factor analysis/target transformation—before interpretations of planetary surface processes should be made.


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