Experimental study of clusters in dense granular gas and implications for the particle stopping time in protoplanetary disks

1Niclas Schneider,1Grzegorz Musiolik,1Jonathan E.Kollmer,1Tobias Steinpilz,1Maximilian Kruss,1Felix Jungmann,1Tunahan Demirci,1Jens Teiser,1Gerhard Wurm
Icarus (in Press) Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114307]
1University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Physics, Lotharstr. 1-21, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
Copyright Elsevier

In protoplanetary disks zones of dense particle configuration promote planet formation. Solid particles in dense clouds alter their motion through collective effects and back reaction to the gas. The effect of particle-gas feedback with an ambient solid-to-gas ratios on the stopping time of particles is investigated. In experiments on board the International Space Station we studied the evolution of a dense granular gas while interacting with air. We observed diffusion of clusters released at the onset of an experiment but also the formation of new dynamical clusters. The solid-to-gas mass ratio outside the cluster varied in the range of about 2.5–60. We find that the concept of gas drag in a viscous medium still holds, even if the medium is strongly dominated in mass by solids. However, a collective factor has to be used, depending on , i.e. the drag force is reduced by a factor 18 at the highest mass ratios. Therefore, flocks of grains in protoplanetary disks move faster and collide faster than their constituents might suggest.

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