1Iris Weber,1Aleksandra N.Stojic,1Andreas Morlok,1Maximilian P.Reitze,1,5Kathrin Markus,1 Harald Hiesinger,2Sergey G.Pavlov,3Richard Wirth,3 Anja Schreiber,4Martin Sohn,2Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers,5Jörn Helbert
Earth and Planetary Science Letters (in Press) Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115884]
1Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster, Institut für Planetologie, Wilhelm – Klemm Str. 10, 48149 Münster, Germany
2German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany
3Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches Geoforschungszentrum (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
4Hochschule Emden/Leer, Constantiaplatz 4, 26723 Emden, Germany
5German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany
We studied space-weathering effects caused by micrometeorite bombardment simulated by pulsed intense infrared laser, generating ∼15 mJ per pulse in high vacuum. For our investigation, we selected a natural olivine (San Carlos olivine (Fo91)) and a natural pyroxene (Bamble orthopyroxene (En87)) as important rock forming minerals of the Earth upper mantle as well as key planetary minerals. Irradiated areas of powdered pressed samples were examined by optical reflection spectroscopy in a broad optical and infrared wavelength range (visible-, near-, and mid-infrared) and transmission electron microscopy to identify changes due to micrometeorite impacts. The present study aims to investigate especially the effects of micrometeorite bombardment on reflectance spectra in the mid-IR in preparation for future space missions, as well as for the MERTIS experiment onboard the BepiColombo mission.
For both irradiated samples, we found a reduction in albedo and in the reflectance of characteristic Reststrahlen bands and an increase of the transparency feature. VIS and NIR spectra of both minerals show the typical darkening and reddening as described for other space-weathered samples. TEM studies revealed that space-weathered layers in olivine and pyroxene differ in their respective thickness, ∼450 nm in olivine, 100-250 nm in pyroxene, as well as in developed “nanostratigraphy” of laser-ablated material, like nanophase iron (npFe).
In conclusion, our spectral and structural findings were compared to samples in which space weathering was caused by different processes. A comparison with these data demonstrates that there is no difference in optical reflectance spectroscopy, but a significant difference in the microstructure of minerals due to the weathering source in space, as there are solar wind and solar flares cause other structural and chemical changes as the bombardment with micrometeorites.