Jupiter’s Formation in the Vicinity of the Amorphous Ice Snowline

Olivier Mousis1, Thomas Ronnet1,2, and Jonathan I. Lunine3
Astrophysical Journal 875, 9 Link to Article [DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab0a72 ]
1Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
2Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
3Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

Argon, krypton, xenon, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus have all been measured and found to be enriched by a quasi uniform factor in the 2–4 range, compared to their protosolar values, in the atmosphere of Jupiter. To elucidate the origin of these volatile enrichments, we investigate the possibility of an inward drift of particles made of amorphous ice and adsorbed volatiles, and their ability to enrich in heavy elements the gas phase of the protosolar nebula, once they cross the amorphous-to-crystalline ice transition zone, following the original idea formulated by Monga & Desch. To do so, we use a simple accretion disk model coupled to modules depicting the radial evolution of icy particles and vapors, assuming growth, fragmentation, and crystallization of amorphous grains. We show that it is possible to accrete supersolar gas from the nebula onto proto-Jupiter’s core to form its envelope, and allowing it to match the observed volatile enrichments. Our calculations suggest that nebular gas, with a metallicity similar to that measured in Jupiter, can be accreted by its envelope if the planet is formed in the ~0.5–2 Myr time range and in the 0.5–20 au distance range from the Sun, depending on the adopted viscosity parameter of the disk. These values match a wide range of Jupiter’s formation scenarios, including in situ formation and migration/formation models.

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