Shock-generating Planetesimals Perturbed by a Giant Planet in a Gas Disk

M. Nagasawa1, K. K. Tanaka2, H. Tanaka2, H. Nomura3, T. Nakamoto3, and H. Miura4
Astrophysical Journal 871, 110 Link to Article [DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf795 ]
1Department of Physics, School of Medicine, Kurume University, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume-city, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan
2Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan
3Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan
4Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Yamanohata 1, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501, Japan

We examined the excitations of planetesimals caused by the resonances of a giant planet in a protoplanetary gas disk. The highly excited planetesimals generate bow shocks, the mechanism of which results in chondrule formation, crystallization of silicate dust, and evaporation of icy planetesimals. The planetesimals beyond 2:1 resonance migrate owing to the gas drag and obtain the maximum eccentricity around 3:1 resonance, which is located at approximately half the planetary distance. The eccentricity depends on the parameters of the planetesimals and the Jovian planet, such as size and location, and the gas density of the disk. The maximum relative velocity of a 100 km sized planetesimal with respect to the gas disk reaches up to ~12 km s−1 in the case of Jupiter owing to secular resonance, which occurs because of the disk’s gravity. We find that if a Jovian-mass planet is located within 10 au, the planetesimals larger than 100 km gain sufficient velocity to cause the melting of chondrule precursors and crystallization of the silicate. The maximum velocity is higher for large planetesimals and eccentric planets. Planetesimals are trapped temporarily in the resonances and continue to have high speed over gsim1 Myr after the formation of a Jovian planet. This duration fits into the timescale of chondrule formation suggested by the isotopic data. The evaporation of icy planetesimals occurs when a Jovian planet is located within 15 au. This mechanism can be a new indicator of planet formation in exosystems if some molecules ejected from icy planetesimals are detected.

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