Observational Signatures of Planets in Protoplanetary Disks: Planet-induced Line Broadening in Gaps

Ruobing Dong (董若冰)1, Sheng-Yuan Liu (呂聖元)2, and Jeffrey Fung (馮澤之)3,4
Astrophysical Journal 870, 72 Link to Article [DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf38e ]
1Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1, Canada
2Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of ASMAB, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Republic of China
3Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411, USA
4NASA Sagan Fellow.

Protoplanets can produce structures in protoplanetary disks via gravitational disk–planet interactions. Once detected, such structures serve as signposts of planet formation. Here we investigate the kinematic signatures in disks produced by multi-Jupiter mass (M J) planets using 3D hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations. Such a planet opens a deep gap, and drives transonic vertical motions inside. Such motions include both a bulk motion of the entire half-disk column, and turbulence on scales comparable to and smaller than the scale height. They significantly broaden molecular lines from the gap, producing double-peaked line profiles at certain locations, and a kinematic velocity dispersion comparable to thermal after azimuthal averaging. The same planet does not drive fast vertical motions outside the gap, except at the inner spiral arms and the disk surface. Searching for line broadening induced by multi-M J planets inside gaps requires an angular resolution comparable to the gap width, an assessment of the gap gas temperature to within a factor of 2, and a high sensitivity needed to detect line emission from the gap.


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