3-μm reflectance spectroscopy of carbonaceous chondrites under asteroid-like conditions

1Driss Takir,2Karen R.Stockstill-Cahill,2Charles A.Hibbitts,3Yusuke Nakauchi
Icarus (in Press) Link to Article [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2019.05.012]
1Jacobs/ARES, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058-3696, USA
2Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20273, USA
3JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara, Japan
Copyright Elsevier

We measured 3-μm reflectance spectra of 21 meteorites that represent all carbonaceous chondrite types available in terrestrial meteorite collections. The measurements were conducted at the Laboratory for Spectroscopy under Planetary Environmental Conditions (LabSPEC) at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL) under vacuum and thermally-desiccated conditions (asteroid-like conditions). This is the most comprehensive 3-μm dataset of carbonaceous chondrites ever acquired in environments similar to the ones experienced by asteroids. The 3-μm reflectance spectra are extremely important for direct comparisons with and appropriate interpretations of reflectance data from ground-based telescopic and spacecraft observations of asteroids. We found good agreement between 3-μm spectral characteristics of carbonaceous chondrites and carbonaceous chondrite classifications. The 3-μm band is diverse, indicative of varying composition, thus suggesting that these carbonaceous chondrites experienced distinct parent body aqueous alteration and metamorphism environments. The spectra of CI chondrites, from which significant amount of water adsorbed under ambient conditions was removed, are consistent with Mg-serpentine and clay minerals. The high abundances of organics in CI chondrites is also associated with the mineralogy of these chondrites, oxyhydroxides- and complex clay minerals-rich. CM chondrites, which are cronstedtite-rich, have shallower 3-μm band than CI chondrites, suggesting they experienced less aqueous alteration. CR chondrites showed moderate aqueous alteration relative to CI and CM chondrites. CV chondrites, except for Efremovka, have a very shallow 3-μm band, consistent with their lower phyllosilicate proportions. CO chondrites, like most CVs, have a very shallow 3-μm band that suggest they experienced minor aqueous alteration. The 3-μm band in CH/CBb is deep and broad centered ~3.11 μm, possibly due to the high abundance of FeNi metal and presence of heavily hydrated clasts in these chondrites. The 3-μm spectra of Essebi (C2-ung) and EET 83226 are more consistent with CM chondrites’ spectra. The 3-μm spectra of Tagish lake (C2-ung), on the other hand, are consistent with CI chondrites. None of these spectral details could have been resolved without removing the adsorbed water before acquiring spectra.

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