**M. R. Mumpower**^{1}, T. Kawano^{1}, T. M. Sprouse^{2}, N. Vassh^{2}, E. M. Holmbeck^{2}, R. Surman^{2}, and P. Möller^{1}

Astrophysical Journal 869, 14 Link to Article [DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaeaca]

^{1}Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA

^{2}Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA

We present *β*-delayed neutron emission and *β*-delayed fission (*β*df) calculations for heavy, neutron-rich nuclei using the coupled Quasi-Particle Random Phase Approximation plus Hauser-Feshbach (QRPA+HF) approach. From the initial population of a compound nucleus after *β*-decay, we follow the statistical decay, taking into account competition between neutrons, *γ*-rays, and fission. We find a region of the chart of nuclides where the probability of *β*df is ~100%, which likely prevents the production of superheavy elements in nature. For a subset of nuclei near the neutron dripline, neutron multiplicity and the probability of fission are both large, leading to the intriguing possibility of multi-chance *β*df, a decay mode for extremely neutron-rich heavy nuclei. In this decay mode, *β*-decay can be followed by multiple neutron emission, leading to subsequent daughter generations that each have a probability to fission. We explore the impact of *β*df in rapid neutron-capture process (*r*-process) nucleosynthesis in the tidal ejecta of a neutron star–neutron star merger and show that it is a key fission channel that shapes the final abundances near the second *r*-process peak.

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